What are the symptoms of West Nile encephalitis in humans? WNV affects the central nervous system. Symptoms may vary. Symptoms typically last a few days. About one in people infected with WNV will develop severe illness. The severe symptoms can include high fever, headache, neck stiffness, stupor, disorientation, coma, tremors, convulsions, muscle weakness, vision loss, numbness and paralysis. These symptoms may last several weeks and neurological effects may be permanent. Mild WNV illness improves on its own and people do not necessarily need to seek medical attention for this infection.
If you develop symptoms of severe WNV illness, such as unusually severe headaches or confusion, seek medical attention immediately. Severe WNV illness usually requires hospitalization. Pregnant women and nursing mothers are encouraged to talk to their doctor if they develop symptoms that could be WNV. How is WNV infection treated? There is no specific treatment for WNV infection. In cases with mild symptoms, people experience symptoms such as fever and aches that pass on their own.
In more severe cases, people usually need to go to the hospital where they can receive supportive treatment including intravenous fluids, help with breathing and nursing care. Is West Nile virus in Utah? As of August 22, sentinel chickens in Emery and Carbon County were confirmed positive with the virus. Horse cases have also been confirmed positive in Uintah and Emery counties.
West Nile virus has been detected in mosquito pools in Utah and Uintah counties. What is Utah doing to prevent a West Nile virus outbreak? The Utah Public Health Laboratory is capable of testing birds and mosquitoes for the presence of the virus. If the virus is located within the state a warning will be made to allow people to take measures to protect themselves and their horses. Utah has confirmed positive mosquito pools, sentinel chicken flocks and horses for West Nile virus during surveillance.
How could a horse get West Nile Virus? Horses become infected with West Nile virus after being bitten by an infected mosquito. The mosquito acquires the virus by feeding on an infected bird and then the mosquito transmits the virus when it feeds on a horse, human or other mammal. Horses and humans are considered "dead end hosts," meaning they cannot transmit the West Nile virus to other horses, birds or people.
Horses in the United States have been infected with the virus. In horses that do become clinically ill, the virus infects the central nervous systems and causes symptoms of encephalitis.
Clinical signs can include: loss of appetite, depression, fever, weakness of hind limbs, paralysis of hind limbs, impaired vision, ataxia, head pressing, aimless wandering, convulsions, inability to swallow, circling, hyperexcitability or coma. Many of these symptoms are similar to horses with rabies, Equine Protozoal Meylities EPM equine encephalitis and other serious neurological diseases. If symptoms are present, a veterinarian should be contacted immediately.
Is there a vaccine for West Nile virus?
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In , a vaccine was conditionally approved for horses, which must be administered by a veterinarian. The initial vaccine is a two-injection series given three weeks apart. Both injections must be given to provide protection from West Nile virus. Foals may be vaccinated at 12 weeks of age and require a second dose three weeks later.
If foals are vaccinated prior to 12 weeks of age, a three-dose series is recommended. Other equine "encephalitic" diseases sleeping sickness, eastern equine encephalitis, western equine encephalitis, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis belong to another family of viruses for which there is not cross-protection.
Therefore, horses should be vaccinated specifically for West Nile virus.
There is no vaccine for humans. How can I prevent mosquitoes from affecting my horses? There are some easy steps you can take to prevent mosquitoes from affecting your horses: House horses indoors during peak periods of mosquito activity dusk and dawn. Avoid turning on lights inside the stable during the evening and overnight. Place incandescent bulbs around the perimeter of the stable to attract mosquitoes away from the horses. Remove all birds, including chickens, that are in or close to the stable.
Eliminate areas of standing water on your property. Topical preparations containing mosquito repellants are available for horses. Read the product label before using and follow all instructions. Fogging of stable premises can be done in the evening to reduce mosquitoes; read directions carefully before using. Is there a treatment for West Nile encephalitis in horses?
There is no specific treatment for West Nile virus other than supportive veterinary care standard for animals infected with a viral agent. Data suggest that most horses do recover from the infection. How can I report a sighting of dead bird s in my area? Due to lack of funding, dead birds are not currently being tested in Utah County Do birds infected with West Nile virus die or become ill?
In West Nile virus has been identified in many species of birds found dead in the United States. Most of these birds were identified through reporting of dead birds by the public. How do I safely handle and dispose of dead birds? For every dead bird: Avoid direct contact with the dead bird. Use rubber gloves or put a double plastic bag over your hand.
Grocery bags will do if they are in good shape. Invert the bags over your hand, grab the bird, wrap it up and tie off or seal the bags. If you are using gloves, place the dead bird into a double plastic bag, wrap it up and tie off or seal the bags. For birds that are to be discarded: Throw the double bagged and dead bird into an OUTSIDE garbage container and wash your hands thoroughly with soap and water.
If you are asked to collect the bird so it can be picked up later: Place the double-bagged dead bird in either a refrigerator or freezer that is not used for food, or in an ice cooler with a generous amount of ice or ice packs. Place the bird in a Ziploc-type bag if available to prevent leakage. If the bird is double-bagged in a sealed and intact Ziploc-type bag, it could probably be safely stored in a refrigerator or freezer used for food as long as it is clearly labeled! Once the bird is stored properly, wash hands with soap and water.
If you do not want to touch the bird and someone has told you it is going to be collected : Pour a generous quantity of ice on the bird and cover it with an ice cooler, garbage can, or other container. What other things should I consider when watching for dead birds? If you notice large numbers of dead birds suddenly appearing in a small area e. Please contact your local Wildlife Resources office to report this. If you have a bird feeder, please read the following paragraphs for instructions on how to clean your feeder:.
For routine cleaning: Clean feeders once a week using a bleach solution - use one part bleach to nine parts water. Rinse feeder thoroughly with water after cleaning and allow it to dry completely before refilling it with fresh seed. Remove waste grains from below feeders.
If you have had birds die near your feeder: Use a stronger bleach solution to clean your feeder - one part bleach to three parts water. Also, remove waste grains from below feeders and empty water for days after an incident where birds have died near your feeder. Why do mosquitoes bite? Mosquitoes belong to a group of insects that requires blood to develop fertile eggs. Males do not lay eggs, thus, male mosquitoes do not bite. The females are the egg producers and "host-seek" for a blood meal. Female mosquitoes lay multiple batches of eggs and require a blood meal for every batch they lay.
Few people realize that mosquitoes rely on sugar as their main source of energy. Both male and female mosquitoes feed on plant nectar, fruit juices and liquids that ooze from plants.
How to request Utah County and Utah State birth certificates and Utah County Birth records for other Utah counties prior to can be obtained at our office for an To begin the death certificate, contact the Local Health Department in the . Working with the State Office of Vital Records and Statistics, we are here to provide you with certified copies of birth and death records. Certificates may be.
The sugar is burned as fuel for flight and is replenished on a daily basis. Blood is reserved for egg production and is imbibed less frequently. When a female mosquito pierces the skin with her mouthparts, she injects a small amount of saliva into the wound before drawing blood. The saliva makes penetration easier and prevents the blood from clotting in the narrow channel of her food canal.
The welts that appear after the mosquito leaves is not a reaction to the wound but an allergic reaction to the saliva injected to prevent clotting. In most cases, the itching sensation and swellings subside within several hours. Some people are highly sensitive and symptoms persist for several days. Scratching the bites can result in infection if bacteria from the fingernails are introduced to the wounds.
Miscellaneous Marriage Index. A few counties from Idaho and Wyoming are also included. The original cards have been interfiled with the Early Church Information File. Many eloping couples went to Farmington, Davis County, Utah to be married and avoid the waiting period between the issuing of a license and the performance of the marriage.